The Amazing Antigen Receptor

The Amazing Antigen Receptor

Each T cell and each B cell has a different antigen receptor.  Collectively T cells and B cells are referred to as lymphocytes. How many lymphocytes do we have? The answer is between 100 million and 1 billion. Now, let’s … Read more

The immune response

The immune response

I have this compulsion to talk about the immune system. In part this is because it is grant season and I have been writing a lot about it in my latest grant proposal. It is such a beautiful and strange … Read more

The Portal Problem

The Portal Problem

This morning several million people have taken a shot of insulin to control their blood sugar levels, as they did yesterday, and as they will do tomorrow. The insulin is delivered into the fatty tissue of the abdomen and is … Read more

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

We think of diabetes as a lack of insulin.  The strange thing, however, about the pre-diabetic state is that it is almost always associated with increased levels of insulin. Since insulin’s job is to get sugar out of the blood, … Read more

Type 2 Diabetes: A Metabolic Disorder

Type 2 Diabetes: A Metabolic Disorder

Unlike the more aggressive form of diabetes, Type 1, where the immune system actively searches out and kills islet cells, in Type 2, the cells die through a long process of overwork and poor waste management. Insulin, as you probably … Read more

Type 1 Diabetes – A Breakdown of Tolerance

Type 1 Diabetes – A Breakdown of Tolerance

There are several forms of diabetes. The main forms are called Type 1 and Type 2. Here I will try to explain the underlying biology that leads to Type 1 diabetes. In the next post, I’ll tackle Type 2. Type … Read more

Symlin: A Primer

Symlin: A Primer

I’m coming up on week two of my Symlin experiment, and I’ve got to say: I love it. Symlin, as you probably know, is a synthetic version of the human hormone amylin which — to quote the FDA — is … Read more

Symlin: A New Adventure

Symlin: A New Adventure

I had my tri-monthly checkup at my endocrinologist’s today, and convinced him to let me try Symlin. They faxed in the prescription for me today, and I’m eager to receive it and start giving it a shot. (That pun was … Read more

Want To Participate In A Trial?

Want To Participate In A Trial?

Many of you may already be aware of this, but a few weeks ago, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation launched a great new site — a searchable database of ongoing research trials. Called the Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Trials Connection, it’s … Read more

Mixed Meal Tolerance Test

Mixed Meal Tolerance Test

So, I just got back from a trip home to the east coast to see my family, and decided that while I was at it, I should try to visit my old endocrinologist, Kevan Herold, who’s currently at Yale. Right … Read more

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