XOMA announced the first presentation of results from its discovery of two new classes of fully human monoclonal antibodies that activate or sensitize the insulin receptor in vivo, each representing a distinct new therapeutic approach to the treatment of patients with diabetes. The data were presented at the American Diabetes Association 71st Scientific Sessions in San Diego.
Insulin is the key metabolic hormone for regulating blood sugar and exerts its action on cells by signaling through the insulin receptor. Alterations in insulin signaling occur in Type 2 diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome. Highly specific human antibodies that activate or sensitize the insulin receptor offer new direct mechanisms for treating different aspects of the diabetes disease spectrum.
Insulin receptor-activating antibodies such as XOMA’s XMetA antibody are designed to provide long-acting insulin-like activity to diabetic patients who cannot make sufficient insulin, potentially reducing the number of insulin injections needed to control their blood glucose levels. In contrast, insulin receptor-sensitizing antibodies such as XOMA’s XMetS are designed to reduce insulin resistance and could enable diabetic patients to more effectively use their own insulin to control blood glucose levels.
Studies presented on the XMetA antibody demonstrated that it reduced fasting blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of diabetes. After six weeks of treatment, there was a statically significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c levels, a standard measure of average blood glucose levels over time, in mice treated with XMetA compared to control. In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in elevated non-HDL cholesterol levels.
Studies of the XMetS antibody in a mouse model of obesity-induced insulin resistance showed enhanced insulin sensitivity and statistically significant improvements in fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in mice treated with XMetS as compared to control. In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in elevated non-HDL cholesterol levels.